The HSCL-25 instrument may have lacked sensitivity in our patient population, something that we will need to investigate further. We do not provide comparisons with other studies because we consider that sociocultural contexts would be so different that it makes this exercise redundant and impossible to reach conclusions. The main dynamic behind impact may have been women’s empowerment – a challenging construct to quantify. We considered the possibility of positive sociability , with participants reporting more positive outcomes so that the project might continue. Circle leaders’ own aspirations for continued employment may have resulted in them painting a more positive picture of their experiences. Sharing the sessions’ content with husbands and mothers-in-law sometimes increased their support. MAXQDA 11 (version 11.2.1) was used to organize the data and code the transcripts via thematic content analysis .
- Guatemalan mail purchase brides notice that they are naturally horny and beautiful, thus applying shiny makeup can be not what they do on a daily basis.
- Rather than staying inside and performing traditional tasks such as caring for children, embroidering and knitting, the wives of migrant workers must enter a workforce that remains a male stronghold, López says.
- The pilot demonstrated acceptability, feasibility and potential efficacy to justify a future definitive randomised controlled trial.
- Esther is a member of the indigenous Ogiek community living in the Mau Forest in Kenya.
It will seek alliances with different actors from the economic sector to adhere the private sector to the seven principles of women’s empowerment . At the inter-agency level it will support mainstreaming a gender perspective in initiatives for growth, inclusive development and food safety. The 2008 – 2009 ESMI asked men if his wife or partner needed to ask his permission to perform certain activities, this is intimately linked to key aspects of women’s independence. A total of 81.6% answered that they needed to ask permission to leave the house, 58.9% that they required asking for the use of contraceptives; 67.0% for managing the household money and 77.8% to perform other activities . These answers were more frequent in residents of rural areas, 33.5%; in the northwest part of the country 49.1%; indigenous men 36.2%; with lower educational levels 39.4% and in the lowest economic quintile 44.3%.
Guatemala has a population that is predominantly young – the average age of women is 26 and men 25 years . Fertility rate is 66.7 live births per 1,000 adolescent girls aged 13 – 19; 1 in 5 of live births is in girls and adolescents; maternal mortality rate is 140 per 100,000 live births and life expectancy is 75 years for women and 68 for men . The HIV epidemic is considered to be concentrated in Guatemala; Dating Guatemala City women represent 38% of the adults living with HIV. The prevalence is expected to rise 0.89% in 2015, the majority of which will be girls years and adolescents 15-24. TheTaliban’s return to powerin Kabul has drastically transformed the life of Azadeh , a member of thepersecuted Hazara community. Standing for everything the Taliban systematically reject, Azadeh had no option but toflee to Pakistan.
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At enrolment, eligible women gave informed consent, a trained female interviewer administered the questionnaire, and nutritionists measured height and weight of her youngest child. A follow-up home-based assessment used the same questionnaire 1-month post-intervention. As few could read Mam or K’iche’, no Maya translations were performed; instead, data collectors agreed on vocabulary to be used with non-Spanish speakers. While women are being targeted for their social justice leadership roles in these conflicts, it is modest progress in the realm of rights and empowerment that has allowed women to assume such roles.
Only 285 cases of the 1,465 reported at the time, could be documented by the Commission. The demand of the women for transforming justice embodied in the 2008 Huehuetenango Declaration, concluded in 2011 with the First Court of Conscience On Sexual Violence Against Women in Guatemala. This Court sanctioned, as a message of impunity and permissiveness, the lack of diligence to investigate and prosecute sex crimes and the absence of policies to prevent them. In 2014, the Sepur Zarco sexual slavery case reached the judicial phase in the national court, this is a historic moment being the first case of this nature to come to trial. The general objective is guarantee women’s rights through empowerment, facilitating their participation and to reap benefits from the national development process. The program aims to strengthen national capacities to comply with institutional obligations regarding the rights of women, in line with international conventions and standards.
Yet Guatemala not only refuses to try or extradite Ríos Montt, despite an international arrest warrant issued in Madrid, but he is now a congressman. Guatemala remains a strongly polarised country with a long history of human rights violations, including a 36-year civil war ( ) in which acts of genocide were committed. Endeavours to promote and protect human rights frequently give rise to stigmatisation and accusations of left-wing political activism from right-wing sections of society. Aluminium mining in Baphlimali, India, has caused environment devastation and has wrecked the lifestyle of thousands of Adivasis. For centuries, Adivasi communities like the Paraja, Jhodia, Penga and Kondh have been living amidst the Baphlimali foothills.
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The nurses have the eligibility criteria chart in Spanish, laminated, and included in their kit for use during study enrollment. As this is a pragmatic trial, there are no restrictions on care and interventions that are permitted or prohibited during the trial.
UN Women has established partnership with Butterfly Wings and Civic Political Convergence to advocate for a greater number of women occupying decision making positions. NIMD is a strong partner to work with locally in a campaign to promote women’s participation. UN Women works in collaboration with UNDP to strengthen the capacities of indigenous women organizations. Our own approach allowed local women to find in the Women’s Circles a space that responded to their individual needs and interests, within a mutually supportive environment.
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Neither the mothers nor the leaders were aware of any untoward effects of participation. Several women mentioned that the Circles helped them improve their relationship with their children and other family members, because they learned to better manage their anger and to not make others feel bad by insulting or hitting them. Only in one periurban community did women oppose the sessions on inter-partner violence and reproductive health. Study participants were easily identified based on the defined eligibility criteria. The majority (73%) were selected for living in extreme poverty, 40% for experiencing psychosocial distress, and 3% for having family problems (categories are non-exclusive).
The lawyer will bring Patricia Sellers, the woman who succeeded in having rape defined as a weapon of war at the trials for genocide in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, to be an expert witness. Between 1960 and 1996 more than 100,000 women were victims of mass rape in the Guatemalan civil war, between CIA-backed rightwing generals and leftwing insurgents, that evetually left 200,000 dead. After General Jose Efraín Ríos Montt grabbed power in a 1982 coup, it reached fresh peaks of brutality.
Control women did not receive an intervention but were invited to join a Women’s Circle when the post-intervention assessment was complete. The intervention extended over 5 months, with sessions taking place every other week. The war left over 200,000, mostly indigenous civilians, murdered, while tens of thousands were raped, tortured, disappeared and displaced. But in the wake of the war, as many an estimated 98 percent of those responsible for war crimes and genocide remain free. “It is important that I state clearly that support for military forces or intelligence units which engaged in violent and widespread repression…was wrong,” said Clinton. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below.
Today women in Guatemala are killed at nearly the same rate as they were in the early 1980s when the civil war became genocidal. Yet the current femicide epidemic is less an aberration than a reflection of the way violence against women has become normalized in Guatemala.